Scientific programme
Theme 1 – Heritage in Tourism Destination Management
T1.01 Celts, Teutons, Slavs and Indiana Jones - cliches in the touristic marketing of archaeological heritage

Dr. Marko Mele, Universalmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria
Dr. Anja Hellmuth Kramberger, Universalmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria
Dr. Jacqueline Balen, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia
Prof. Hrvoje Potrebica, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Unwritten rules, like e.g. “Story is king – facts are servants”, “There’s no such thing as bad publicity” or “Sex sales”, are shaping todays marketing. Marketing in the sense “the action or business of promoting and selling products or services, including market research and advertising” has become a major issue also in archaeology, which started to form its own rules. Archaeology of today is more than ever challenged not only to be publicly active but also to efficiently “sell” its “product”. And as a product we don’t only understand exhibitions in museums, with their continuous craving for more visitors, but also field research, conferences, documentary movies and lectures from research institutions and excavation firms, which are also challenged to present their accomplishments to the public, so all kinds of “archaeological products”.
For our session we would like to invite papers with innovative approaches to marketing of archaeological heritage. The focus should not only be on the communication channels used and the infrastructure needed for marketing, but more on the language and symbols used to communicate with the costumers and consumers. Have you created an innovative marketing story? Are you using special mascots or characters to communicate? How often do we go for archaeological clichés in our marketing tools? Do “celts” sale? The session hopes to give a small insight on the emerging relationship between marketing and archaeology

T1.02 Digital heritage and other contemporary presentation models

Ms Gorana Barišić Bačelić, Public cultural institution Fortress of Culture Šibenik, Croatia
Mr Josip Pavić, Public cultural institution Fortress of Culture Šibenik, Croatia

The methods of cultural heritage interpretation, whether we are speaking about movable, immovable or intangible heritage, have experienced a technological revolution in the last decade or so. Even the most unreachable and vulnerable exhibits and sites have suddenly became accessible to public. Technological advancement led to many opportunities in research, especially in archaeological field – from various non-invasive analytical methods, the usage of GIS and other databases, to robotics. The researchers are well-connected, their projects are more visible to their peers and public, digital contents are becoming more and more affordable.
This all leads to numerous possibilities in presentation of our sites to contemporary visitor, who seeks for unique experiences and wants to publicly share them with his surroundings. It is now possible to establish virtual or augmented reality museums, create 4D reconstructions of intangible heritage, or make detailed 3D conservation projects which should lead to more precise and thorough sanation of sites.
This session will present the best practice examples and link cultural workers with contractors and private sector.

T1.03 Getting ready for our visitors – communication and visibility

Ms Gorana Barišić Bačelić, Public cultural institution Fortress of Culture Šibenik, Croatia
Mr Josip Pavić, Public cultural institution Fortress of Culture Šibenik, Croatia

Although the principal role of archaeological or cultural monument is a touristic one, contemporary values of our world and ever the greater mobility of mankind have brought an increasing human pressure on cultural assets. On the other hand, governments are setting a self-sustainability imperative onto state- and locally-funded cultural institutions and sites. Therefore, their spontaneous and intuitive promotion activities should be replaced with a planned approach and new communication models, leading culture towards the visitor, instead of awaiting for him.
Institutions need to ask themselves precise questions – who is a cultural tourist and what does he expect? Will he be interested in visiting our site and why? What will our key words evoke in him? How to find him using market research, and what should we say to him?

T1.04 The role of new technologies in interpretation and presentation of archaeological sites

Ms Dora Kušan Špalj, Archaeological museum in Zagreb, Croatia

This theme will explore the role of new technologies (multimedia applications, 3D virtual reconstructions, augmented reality, etc.) in the interpretation of archaeological sites and the influence that such a form of interpretation has on the accessibility of locality in the aspect of tourism (tourist numbers and visitation patterns, tourist access etc.). This topic aims to encompass past experience and future projects related to the application of modern technology as well to compare it with classical forms of interpretation of archaeological sites. We would like to discuss what are the advantages and disadvantages in applying the new technology in interpretation and presentation of heritage.
What are possibilities offered by new technologies and social networks in promotion of the sites? How they can contribute in interaction in the educational process and in the personalizing of the visitor’s experience of the site? What are the risks that interpretation is ending up as entertainment and archaeological site becoming a “Disneyland”?
This theme can be also be discussed in the context of “Charter for the interpretation and presentation of Monuments of World Cultural Heritage” (UNESCO 2008) that focuses on: „…the dramatic expansion of interpretive activities at many cultural heritage sites and the introduction of elaborate interpretive technologies and new economic strategies for the marketing and management of cultural heritage sites have created new complexities and aroused basic questions that are central to the goals of both conservation and the public appreciation of cultural heritage sites throughout the world…“

T1.05 Sensing the sensitive past: contested political heritage and tourism

Dr. Katerina Chatzikonstantinou, Department of Architecture, University of Thessaly, Greece
Dr. David Martin López, Department of Art History, University of Granada, Spain

Dictatorships and authoritarian regimes in Europe and America during 20th century have always used ‘memory’ in the architectural and urban heritage as a cultural and political means in order to create and apply a new ideology of origins and meaning. In this context, many archaeological sites have been appropriated in the name of the ideals of the regime, whose ideology becomes present also in the methodology followed in the archaeological excavation and its associate museographic and urbanistic discourse.
In turn, with the end of these regimes many contested political sites were commodified, intentionally re-contextualizing the narrative of the past, most of the time through contemporary tourism practices. Analyses of these processes can trace the varied mnemonic tourism strategies and start a discourse of identity, constructed memory, political heritage interpretation and the role that cultural heritage tourism management can play in the sustainability of this sensitive past.
We are interested in research that:
• Explores distinct socio-political and economical circumstances that formed specific national tourism development policies with archaeological significance during European and American dictatorships.
• Offers an overview of the international relationship between heritage, political ideology and tourism during the regimes of 20th century.
• Reviews archetype places where the heritage of the archaeological site and its commodification is deeply connected with Fascism or Communism.
• Analyses how during Democracy those archaeological sites have been reconverted, readapted and re-signified into new perspectives through the prism of tourism.
• Raises questions on the success or failure of the tourism strategic focus of the archaeological sites’ policies during the authoritative regimes.
Papers that offer comparative perspectives, especially across nations, are especially desired.

T1.06 Following in the footsteps – the importance of historical figures for modern tourism

Ms. Sunčica Nagradić Habus, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia
Mr. Nathan Mannion, Senior curator, EPIC The Irish Emigration Museum

In the last two hundred years, thanks to the spread of knowledge and widening of horizons during the Enlightenment period in Europe, an interesting and unique type of personality is emerging. Those were people of great interest and ambition, for which we have the impression that they were constantly moving forward. With them they carried the inexhaustible energy and desire for knowledge and discovery, for the unknown. They came from different backgrounds, layers of society, belong to different cultural circles. Some were officers, soldiers, artists, and even statesmen, but we can all put them under the common denominator of adventures. It is very easy to pull the parallel between their aspirations for new with modern tourists who each explore yet unknown cultures in their own way.
These researchers’ biographies are more like travel books, passing the Old World across and beyond with almost incredible ease, leaving traces wherever they came. The biographies can in a way almost serve as modern tourist itineraries. Apart from the intangible passion for descovering the new, what they had in common was a desire to get acquainted with the old one, with what was before. They were fascinated by history and past times which equally represented the unknown valuable to discover. They were first archaeologists, proto-archaeologists if you want, although their actions werw sometimes in a way unconscious. They conducted the first archaeological excavations, most often of ancient and Egyptian heritage, in unprejudiced, instinctive way. They were real pioneers like Heinrich Schlieman and Arthur Evans or cult figures such as Lawrence of Arabia. Some became obscured by time and have to be rediscovered, for example Count Laval Nugent.
What can we learn from their actions? Can their movements become a model and a stimulus to our modern endeavors? Can they serve as an inspiration for our travels? How did they shape the places they visited? We especially encourage presentations that question the role of historical figures in the creation and branding of particular locations and destinations.

T1.07 Archaeological Heritage in Destination Management of Historic Towns and Cities

Mr. Darko Komšo, Archaeological Museum of Istria, Pula, Croatia

The session focuses on the role archaeological heritage plays in the destination management of historic towns and cities. From small historic jewels little known to the outside world to major World Heritage Sites globally famous as tourist attractions, tourist destinations depend on their archaeological heritage as the fundamental resource base that allows them to enter the international tourism arena.
The session addresses the question of positive, but also of negative impacts such developments have on the very heritage this type of tourism depends on. In recent years there is a growing realization that initial investments and profits from tourist visits and consumption are in many cases sooner or later offset by negative effects, of which overtourism and gentrification are certainly among the most conspicuous in the present day and age.
How does archaeological heritage fare in such processes? What tools do archaeologists and other heritage specialists have in their effort to study, preserve, interpret and present the objects of their interest? And what about other sectors, whose perspective of heritage is fundamentally different, are they entitled a say in decisions about archaeological heritage management? Is there a common ground for rapprochement leading to balanced and participatory management?
We invite speakers from different fields, representing stakeholders from the circle including archaeologists, conservators, tourism specialists, local administrative units, civic sector and local community.

T1.08 Danse Macabre: Dark tourism and archaeology

Dr. Marla J. Toyne, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fl, USA

Why are we so fascinated by death and dying? Why are cemeteries, catacombs, and sites of historical violence or massacres visited by thousands of tourists around the world?
Archaeologists excavate tombs and burial grounds across human antiquity using skeletal remains to learn about the lives and deaths of past peoples. Some sites tell stories of a long history of violence and some show how specific tragic events may have shaped human societies. To us, they may not seem to be places for the development of tourism and visitation, yet they become transformed into sites of pilgrimage, memory, and economic value.
In this session, we will discuss why cemeteries and places of mass death and disaster become tourist attractions, what role archaeologists can play in shaping the experiences and expectations of visitors, and how we can engage in preservation and promotion of these sites in meaningful and sensitive ways.

T1.09 Destination tourism: is it right for all heritage tourism?

Dr. Valerie Higgins, American University in Rome
MSc Anna Sasso American University in Rome

UNESCO (amongst others) have promoted destination tourism and the integrated management of heritage sites as a means of protecting sites from over exploitation, and of promoting their sustainable economic development. This round table invites colleagues to share their experiences of destination management across heritage sites. We would like to explore issues such as the practical barriers to establishing such management practices, ethical issues of stakeholder representation and contradicting interests, as well as examples of where such an approach has made a significant difference. Are there some sites for which it will never be the right approach? Are there some sites for which it will work well?

T1.10 Heritage monuments as cultural event sites

Ms Gorana Barišić Bačelić, Public cultural institution Fortress of Culture Šibenik, Croatia
Mr Josip Pavić, Public cultural institution Fortress of Culture Šibenik, Croatia

Everyday life of a heritage monument is often reduced to historical definition and interpretation of its previous social role. But recently, an increasing number of heritage managers are reusing the distinct spatial features of monuments to accommodate other forms of culture. This often leads to revalorisation of the monument itself. Also, cultural events such as concerts, festivals, fairs and exhibitions can help us to boost a brand of our heritage monument and the destination itself.
How to achieve balance between sterile restoration and unrestrained commercialization; between the explanation of old and introduction of new contents? What can we do to connect with event organizers? How to develop key programme and production guidelines? What are the non-invasive ways of using and treating space that is entrusted to us? Can we, and under which circumstances, assign a new cultural meaning to a historical monument?

T1.11 The ICOMOS Cultural Tourism Charter Renewal - Implications for Archaeological Site Management and Sustainability

B.A., M.E.Des. Fergus T. Maclaren, ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee

The ICOMOS Cultural Tourism Charter represents the guiding principles and foundation for ICOMOS Scientific Committees, including ICAHM, to apply and improve destination development and management approaches within their individual disciplines. Due to the sensitivity of many of these sites, however, there are a number of issues to be considered at destinations, including: presentation, interpretation, infrastructure, partnerships and controls to manage potential human impacts and traffic. There are also broader considerations that affect archaeological sites that the proposed changes to the Charter are trying to address at a high level such as overtourism, indigenous rights and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, sustainability. Hence, where tourism has become a key concern for archaeological sites interested in attracting visitors for education, constituency building and revenue expansion purposes, the Charter renewal represents the opportunity for it to become more relevant to outlining how tourism can be both a positive factor for cultural heritage resources and venues, while also serving the sustainability needs of the community that live in and/or around it.
The intended approach of the workshop is to present the Charter and its current operational context; identify the proposed changes being made within the Charter and show how these may affect the archaeological community and individual types of sites; and gather input from workshop attendees on their ideas and perspectives that could contribute to improving tourism development and visitor management at these sites. The recommendations and proposed changes from the workshop will then be consolidated into a brief report for distribution to session attendees and included as part of the Sense and Sensibility post-event documentation.

T1.12 5E Destination Development and Management – A Scalable, Sustainable Tourism Administration Model for Archaeological Sites

B.A., M.E.Des. Fergus T. Maclaren MAC-DUFF Tourism • Heritage • Planning

The ICOMOS Cultural Tourism Charter represents the guiding principles and foundation for ICOMOS Scientific Committees, including ICAHM, to apply and improve destination development The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) has indicated that there were a record 1.8 million international visitor arrivals in 2018, a 6% increase from the year before. These numbers were preceded by the UNWTO/IPSOS Global survey on the perception of residents towards city tourism: impact and measures. Aggregating the opinions of 12,000 people across 15 countries, respondents were most receptive to the following measures: ‘improve infrastructures and facilities’ (72%), ‘create experiences and attractions that benefit both residents and visitors’ (71%), and ‘ensure local communities benefit from tourism’ (65%). Determining what these broad implications of increased tourist numbers and their consequences, both positive and negative, have for sensitive archaeological sites, however, is not always easy to gauge. Hence, the application of the nascent 5E Destination Development and Management model may be an appropriate way to better outline the different challenges for individual sites and their associated managers, stewards, communities and operators to promulgate enhanced site sustainability. The scalable 5E framework with explanations is as follows:
• Expectations – What are the expectations of individual stakeholders including visitors, community members, government bodies and tourism operators and associated businesses;
• Experiences – What types of activities and events will draw people to a site and be authentic to the history and culture of the local community;
• Equity – What stake and potential benefits/liabilities do stakeholders have in the development and management processes;
• Extraction – What are the most efficient and appropriate ways that revenue can be generated through tourism; and
• Evaluation – How can results be determined whether tourism development and management actions are successful, or need to be adjusted.
The presentation will align the 5E framework with the Sustainable Development Goals and be applied to a tentative indigenous World Heritage site in Canada, Writing-on-Stone / Áísínai’pi, as a case study to demonstrate how destination development and management can be improved at sensitive archaeological sites.

T1.13 The Role of Archelogical Heritage in Development of Tourism Destinations

Ms Renata Nevidal, Globtour Event d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia
Mr Željko Trezner Vern University, Zagreb, Croatia

We are proposing an interactive workshop that will enable an open exchange of ideas and good practices in governing and preservation of cultural heritage, development of new attractions, programmes, itineraries and their role in development of tourism destination and management.
Speakers will be scientist from different fields and tourism specialists, representatives of local government and/or destination management specialist, destination management organisations (DMO/Tourist Board) representatives. We would provide more details upon receiving confirmation from all speakers.

Theme 2 – Sustainable development, archaeology and tourism
T2.01 Money Makes the World Go Round - Archaeological Tourism, Alternative Funding and Sustainability of Projects in Archaeology

Mr. Filip Franković,University of Heidelberg, Germany
Mr. Ozren Domiter, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia

Funding problems are a challenge for most archaeological projects, since they are still predominantly funded by public resources and regarded more as a charity donation than as an investment. This a result of the fact that archaeological projects are rarely prioritized and often regarded as unsustainable. As a result, archaeologists are seeking alternative funding models which would offer more lucrative funding opportunities. However, the opening up of the discipline towards new resources is a two-way street, which also requires archaeological projects to consider new markets and target groups. While such a change may lead to the development of sustainability, it also necessitates a step away from the traditional operating model and towards a more marketable and consumer-oriented experience. Therefore, archaeological tourism might be a stepping stone towards sustainability of archaeological projects.
The turn towards sustainability and the subsequent commercialization of archaeology often invokes criticism. If archaeology is understood as a discipline in the service of society, should it continue to evade commodification as much as possible? In what ways can archaeology open up to the general public as a consumer experience and at what charge, if any? How does the exclusivity of the discipline contribute to its (un)sustainability? Can archaeological tourism be used for the development of sustainable models? The relationship between archaeological tourism and archaeological projects is yet to be determined in order to balance financial needs and avoid excessive commercialization.
To address this challenge, we would like to open the discussion on four topics applicable to various activities in archaeology:
1) Role of archaeological tourism in the development of sustainable archaeological projects
2) Archaeological tourism as an alternative funding model: risks and benefits
3) Benefits of archaeological tourism for local stakeholders
4) Commodification of archaeology: advantages and disadvantages

T2.02 Journey to the Beginnings: Developing Sustainable Arts-Based Heritage Tourism

Prof. Joanna Sofaer, University of Southampton, UK
Barna Petrányi, Pro Progressione, Hungary+

This session addresses the challenges and benefits of developing novel, sustainable, cross-sectoral interventions designed to boost heritage tourism by reaching new audiences through the case study of the EU-funded Culture Europe Project \’Journey to the Beginnings\’.
Journey to the Beginnings is a collaborative project involving prehistoric cultural heritage sites, museums, contemporary arts and new technologies to promote and enhance public appreciation of prehistoric cultural heritage along the River Danube. The project uses cultural heritage as a source of inspiration for contemporary arts and new technologies to develop a new interpretive infrastructure for four key archaeological sites, their associated museums and archaeological parks: the Bronze Age tell at Százhalombatta and the Matrica Museum, Hungary; the Eneolithic site of Vučedol and the Vučedol Culture Museum, Croatia; the Mesolithic site of Lepenski Vir and Lepenski Vir Museum, Serbia; Bronze Age sites at Gârla Mare and Iron Gates Regional Museum, Romania. Cross-sectoral collaboration between archaeologists, museum professionals, cultural heritage managers, tourist professionals, IT experts and contemporary artists (a theatre director, novelist, composer and set designer) is resulting in live game-based performances and an augmented and mixed reality application. The latter aims at using technology to provide a sustainable interpretive infrastructure that will develop the visitor experience. Research on the relationship between archaeology and arts practice is carried out throughout the project process in order to develop best practice in this area and explore its potential for tourist engagement with heritage.
Contributions to the session come from a range of project stakeholders, thereby providing a range of complementary perspectives on sustainable arts-based heritage tourism.

T2.03 Heritage Impact Assessment and the Cultural Property Management Planning

Dr. Dražen Arbutina, ICOMOS Croatia; Politechnic of Zagreb, Croatia

Heritage has the essential function only incorporated into our reality. For heritage to be incorporated it is necessary to know it. To know the heritage and to understand its values, for many, there is necessity for physical interaction, in providing direct contact and visit. The principles of the integrating heritage into everyday life today include high frequency and high intensity tourism and visits. Visits are than made often to extremely limited and sensitive locations, and they pose extremely challenging process to manage and problems to mitigate. The need for every human to experience heritage in person through physical experience is therefore often contributing to its devastation. It is more so in today chaotic and massive tourism, due to the enormous number of such visitors and their ability to travel around the world.
As an attempt to respond to positive intentions and extremely negative potential effects, the institutions of the Heritage Impact Assessment, and the planning and management of the heritage sites are developed. Those institutions, as potentially affirmative, are world wide presented and in principle defined, but in practical and pragmatic way they have to be developed in a way to be much more profound and viable. It is necessary to develop applicability and inclusiveness of their methods and it is necessary to evolve much needed effectiveness in implementation of their findings.
In the light of the economic pressures and with the maximum profanation of tourism and heritage visits, challenges arise that involve analyzing and assessing potential negative effects on the cultural property, as well as ways to prevent, avoid, correct or mitigate the negative consequences of such an uncontrolled tourism turmoil. It is than the issue of planning the management of cultural properties and sites in a such way that sustainability is fully embedded within. It has to be done enabling the possibility of personal interaction with the heritage, but not in a manner that will have the possibility and ability to destroy its character and integrity, and in many cases its physical existence.
It is intent in this proposal to open a discussion around the models and methods of assessing the impact on the heritage of various tourist activities. It is intent to define the ways for heritage management and management planning in a way that would demonstrate sustainability in its entirety, to provide the heritage with mechanisms to survive the hectic and now almost manic essence of modern tourism.

T2.04 Dive into the Past: Underwater Archaeology and Sustainable Tourism

Dr. Irena Radić Rossi, University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia
Dr. Barbara Davidde, Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro (ISCR), Rome, Italy

Underwater cultural heritage is an appealing cultural attraction which can substantially enrich the cultural tourism offer. Through various ways of presentation, with the help of new technologies, it becomes accessible to everybody, either in situ or in the museum collections and other public spaces.
The underwater archaeological sites reflect a long history of human interconnections. Through creation of networks of such sites, we can invite people to follow the traces of our ancestors and feel the excitement of new discoveries. The emerging figure of citizen scientist, which actively participates in various stages of scientific work, is a promising way of involvement of broad community in the process of research, protection, preservation and presentation of delicate underwater environments.
The session explores current trends in creation of attractive touristic destinations based on underwater cultural heritage, with special emphasis on new technologies which highly contribute to its attractiveness and accessibility. It also explores the potential threats to the sustainability of such efforts and discusses the possible solutions to the emerging problems.

T2.05 Archaeologist LIVE - Towards Active Consumption of Archaeological Heritage

Mr. Ozren DomiterArchaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia
Mr. Filip Franković University of Heidelberg, Germany

The basic idea of the session shares the attitude that traditional visit of archaeological site is overran by the time. The modern visitor strives for authentic experience and direct interaction with an archaeological professional in action.
The session is formed to share and discuss various experiences, modalities, practice, perspectives and theoretical contemplations of archaeological heritage communication in vivo, i.e. through the live interaction between professional archaeologist and non-archaeologist individual group of users. Whether it is about museum visits, guided tours on sites or presentation of monuments, archaeological excavations/survey, office work in an institution, preservation or any other form of archaeological work, such a personal, direct interaction should result in the unique experience of active personal involvement necessarily gained in the authentic archaeological/institutional environment under non-simulated conditions.
As the archaeological science is in the service of society in the first, we believe that forms of their communication, even through the live interaction with a professional archaeologist in action, should remain free-of-charge and deprived of any commodification even when it is part of the touristic offer. Of course, different practices and attitudes toward the commercialization of archaeology and archaeological goods are also encouraged, as well as the perspectives of (non)sustainability in such a way of live presentation.
The mission of the session is to share and question;
– different experiences and ideas of such an interaction,
– modalities and circumstances under which it takes place
– direct or subsequent material and non-material benefits for an organising institution, the professional involved, a user himself and the local community
– commercial and non-commercial aspects on the topic toward sustainability

T2.06 Watch your step! - Sustainable management of cave sites as tourist attractions

Prof. Jim Ahern, University of Wyoming, USA
Dr. Ivor Janković, Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb

Caves have been a part of human experience ever since our genus arose. Caves served many roles in the past. They have been homes, shelters, places of death, ritual and worship. Likewise, caves are still very much an important part of our lives. For scientists of different trades, caves provide a valuable source for research.
Additionally, caves are important for other reasons. Local communities still use caves as a part of their subsistence patterns and lifestyle (e.g. as enclosures for their livestock). New trends in medicine and therapy have also embraced caves (speleotherapy). In addition, the exploration of caves is an ever growing trend. While this is welcome for economic reasons and certainly an important and integral part that can follow scientific research and excavations, it has its own dangers. Thus, it is crucial to come to a sustainable solution and guidelines for best practices that will allow both scientific research and public visitation to the sites.
This session is aimed at bringing together various experiences and addressing the questions pertaining to interpretation and presentation of archaeological cave sites, including visitor management, carrying capacity; marketing and management; their role as research sites, points of interest for community archaeology, and cultural attractions in the management of tourist destinations.

T2.07 Slow and Sustainable: Citta Slow

Mr. Mehmetcan Soyluoglu, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus

In a globalized world, endangered level of the world’s cultural heritage is increasingly growing in these days. Undoubtedly, augmentation in the human population and uncontrolled urban expansion are some of the threatening factors that put cultural heritage in risk. The gap between human and its cultural heritage is increasing and the balance between urban development and cultural heritage in the cities is disrupted. On the other hand, a social movement which is called Citta Slow (Slow City) has a unique way to keep human interaction with cultural heritage in a less harmful manner, even protecting and enhancing the sustainability of the heritage in various circumstances. While the criteria that are required by the Citta Slow movement bring sustainability to the cultural heritage protection for the entitled cities with the help of locals, also, these cities become attraction points for the tourists who are interested in alternative forms of tourism.
This session will examine the Citta Slow movement, its criteria for the title, and their effects on cultural heritage protection, based on the slow cities. Currently, there are more than 250 cities entitled as Citta Slow all around the world and each of them follows different policies to promote and support their titles, which will also be discussed in this session. Moreover, observations on tourism and cultural heritage interaction in slow cities and what kind of scientific approaches can be applied to those cities and which benefits can be gained will also find a place in this session. We invite presentations that are interested in Citta Slow experience and its connection with cultural heritage and tourism from different aspects and case studies.

T2.08 Interpretation and presentation of archaeological sites within the framework of the legislation

Dora Kušan Špalj, Archaeological museum in Zagreb

This theme will explore in what form the interpretation and presentation of archaeological sites are represented in the laws and legislation in different countries (within the framework of tourism and the protection of cultural heritage). It would be interesting to compare the practice of institutional manegment (type of organisation, owner of the organisation, type of management etc.) of presented archaeological sites and how their establishment is regulated.
Is there any definition of the terms connected with presentation of the sites (archaeological park, archaeological open air museum, archeological zone, etc) in legislation of different countries?
The topic will be contribution in collecting data based on information and experience of different countries. The data obtained may be useful in the countries that do not have fully elaborated legislation and regulations relating to presentation and interpretation of archaeological sites, but also assistance to institutions that are in the process of establishing new archaeological parks (how to find the most suitable organisational form).
The plan is to prepare questionnaires that the participants of the conference would fill in and then the topic could be discussed on a \”round table\”. The idea is to publish collected information and results in order to be useful for further development of this theme in various countries.

T2.09 Revitalization of the Cultural Heritage Sites: Heritage as the Initiator and not a Restraint for Sustainable Development

Dr. Jacqueline Balen, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb
Ms. Marta Rakvin, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb
Ms. Ivana Pancirov, APE d.o.o.
Ms. Sandra Jakopec, APE d.o.o.

Cultural heritage is often perceived as passive and static, not allowing many possibilities for innovation and implementation of new creative ideas or technologies that would add new values and provide a basis for sustainable development of the community it is immersed in.
As bearers of community’s identity and tangible connectors to its past and ancestors, archaeological and other culture heritage sites possess an unparalleled trait that can used by a very divergent pool of stakeholders. In this way, it can be adapted to current needs and interests, reinvented and ultimately monetized.
Furthermore, because every site is different it constitutes a basis for development of activities that can be specifically tailored for a particular region taking into account its location, natural and cultural environment, gastronomical and oenological offer…etc.
Educational and cultural roles of heritage sites, as well as the protection system, cannot be seen as a restraint for their sustainable development, but rather as measures of conservation and means for raising awareness for its successful future use.
In recognizing the value of every cultural heritage site and positioning it on the market of \”special interests\” while considering the principles of sustainable development, it would be possible to successfully commercialize it without fear of too much exploitation. In addition, polity and strategy makers should always incorporate members of the local community stakeholders into their revitalization plans.

T2.10 Integrated management of archaeological sites: a short review of European practices

Prof. Hrvoje Potrebica, University of Zagreb
Dr. Vincent Guichard,Bibracte EPCC, France

The concept of integrated management emerged at the same time as the idea of sustainable development, with the two concepts being considered mutually dependent. For obvious reasons, they have both been applied predominantly to environmental issues, with a symbolic milestone being reached at the 1992 Rio Summit. Since this time, these concepts have increasingly informed environmental policy and law. Applying these ideas to cultural heritage would seem to be both obvious and necessary. Explicit mention of integrated management in normative documents relating to cultural heritage remains extremely rare, however.
On a more practical level, integrated management is rarely mentioned when management plans for heritage sites are being drawn up. The fact that the concept is not specifically referred to does not, however, mean that these policies do not advocate integrated management in practice; it is, for example, the underlying principle behind the French Grands Sites policy. From a practical and operational point of view this allows us to define as integrated management a formalised and planned management style which has as its primary objective the long-term preservation of a site’s authenticity, based in particular on the knowledge and on the involvement of local communities on all levels.
The workshop we are proposing wishes to explore the modalities of integrated management of archaeological sites, by comparing practical experiences and projects relating to half a dozen sites, which will be presented in the form of briefings lasting no more than 20 minutes in order to leave a large part for discussion. We will also explore the possibilities of sharing experiences at European level.
Proposals for intervention from archaeologists involved in site management or site managers are equally welcome.

T2.11 Borders and boundaries of critical heritage studies in the Mediterranean area: tourism and beyond

Dr Darko Babić, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Dr Clara Masriera Esquerra, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Prof Alexandra Bounia, University College London – Qatar

The MED (Mediterranean) Chapter of the ACHS (Association of Critical Heritage Studies) is a cross-national, regional network of scholars, researchers and practitioners working in the broad and interdisciplinary field of heritage studies who are based in the Mediterranean area (countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea) or have an interest in the Mediterranean heritage. It is a subset of the international ACHS whose \’primary aim is to promote heritage as an area of critical enquiry\’.
The MED Chapter, established in 2018, promotes Mediterranean heritage as an area of critical enquiry and supports dialogue, networking, exchange of and dissemination of information between researchers, practitioners and activists from different fields and disciplinary backgrounds interested in the Mediterranean heritage.
Re: the conference “Sense and Sustainability” = International Conference on Archaeology and Tourism (6-10 May 2019, Zagreb) we are proposing a session which will gather heritage experts discussing what is critical heritage approach as far as the Mediterranean area is concerned. Where are challenges, benefits, or possible downfalls of this (global) approach. An extra interest will be put on influence of tourism on heritage issues in the Mediterranean area (positive or negative, both are welcomed).

T2.12 Education and heritage: challenges and issues in the age of historicity crisis


Asst. prof. Igor Kulenović,PhD, University of Zadar, Department of Tourism and Communication Studies
Sanja Horvatinčić, PhD, Institute of Art History, Zagreb

The societies of late capitalism were affected by a profound change over the past few decades. Historicity as a property of whole communities loses its appeal and it is being substituted by more personalised notions of heritage and memory. Hence, the conditions of production of archaeology as a relevant discipline in society have changed significantly. The discipline is no longer expected simply to produce knowledge about the past but also to ‘’justify’’ its existence in market conditions. Tourism is a constantly growing enterprise and in some countries it is a crucial source of income. The circumstances for the discipline have changed inasmuch as archaeology is now expected to take an active role in production of knowledge and sites suited for the needs of cultural tourists.
This session aims to explore various problems and issues of what does it mean to teach heritage, to practice heritage, to interpret and manage heritage in a world that seems to have utterly compressed space and time. This particularly pertains to concepts, paradigms, interpretative tools, themes etc. deployed to fully embrace this new set of circumstances. The range of fields and areas of expertise affected by these changes is truly enormous. They include core disciplines such as archaeology, anthropology, history, art history etc. but also a range of stakeholders in the realm of practice such as tourism and heritage studies (including but not reduced to tourist guides, tourist agencies, heritage managers, heritage officials etc.).
We invite scholars and practitioners from a broad range of fields to present their views on what it means to create and disseminate knowledge on heritage today and what are the challenges posed by the brave new world of cultural production in late capitalism.

T2.13 Is Tourism Destroying World Heritage? (ICAHM sponsored session)

Dr. William P. Megarry, ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management

World heritage sites are popular destinations for tourists, yet there is often a conflict between preserving these outstanding places and enabling people to access and experience them. This dichotomy lies at the heart world heritage management. The ICOMOS Mexico Charter on Managing Tourism at Places of Historical Interest states that, ‘Reasonable and well managed physical, intellection and/ or emotive access to heritage and cultural development is both a right and a privilege’ [emphasis added]. But this right comes at a cost. Many iconic World Heritage Sites are over-crowded and large numbers of visitors are leading to unsustainable tourism development. Global tourism is also a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and World Heritage Sites play a significant role in this industry. Rising sea levels, increased storminess, desertification and increased rainfall are already impacting many World Heritage Sites, and the problem is only going to get worse.
This session will explore the intersection between tourism and sustainability – both of individual sites and of World Heritage in general. It welcomes papers exploring issues relating to World Heritage Sites including, but not limited to, carrying capacities, visitor management, community engagement in tourism, tourism and sustainability, climate change and tourism and slow-tourism.

This session is sponsored by ICAHM

Theme 3 – Tourism and archaeological heritage management in Protected areas, World heritage sites and National parks
T3.01 Friend or Foe - Reconstructions as means of site interpretation

Dr. Peter Kienzle, LVR-Archaeological Park at Xanten

Confronted with a changing society and a changing perception of our day-to-day environment, site interpretation needs to discuss its ways to communicate with the visitors at archaeological sites. New media present an almost perfect virtual reality and perfect images become a common feature in our daily life. However, it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish the “real” from the “false”.
Within these processes, physical reconstructions at archaeological sites seem to be outdated and old fashioned. From the very beginning in the 19th century, physical reconstructions at archaeological sites were hailed by some and condemned by others. While seen positively in the Charta of Athens (1931), they were rejected in the Charter of Venice (1964) and finally accepted – under particular circumstances – in the Charta of Lausanne (1990). Disregarding the scholarly discussions, visitors seem to appreciate the advantages of physical reconstructions. Walking into rooms, touching material surfaces, hearing the sound of feet walking on floors or smelling the smoke of wood-fire results in a rich perception of the surrounding with a wide range of senses.
This contribution explores the advantages and disadvantages of physical reconstructions and – in particular – the difficulty to understand the processes of reception by the visitor. While scholars know about the deficiencies of the reconstruction works, the visitor experiences a complete and perfect built reconstruction. Is the message intended by the scholar transmitted properly and is it well received by the visitor? Which role plays the visitor’s preexisting knowledge of the past? Is it possible to communicate simplifications and limits of knowledge in reconstructions? Architects, architectural historians, archaeologists and museum specialists are invited to report on their experiences with reconstructions at archaeological sites.

T3.02 Archaeological World Heritage Sites as Tourism Attractions: Management, Research, Conservation and Long Term Sustainability

Mr. Bruno Navarro, Fundacao Coa Parque, Portugal

Archaeological sites form an important part of the World Heritage List. Due to the complexity of the different contexts where these sites are located also taking into to account its non-renewable nature and fragile condition, management, research and conservation activities must be adapted to each particular case. Bestowed with universal significance, sites in UNESCOS’s World Heritage constitute noteworthy case-studies that can inform best practices to be followed. The overarching goal of all carried out activities should seek to achieve overall sustainability of implemented management, research and conservations models and strategies. Thus, overall sustainability is considered to encompass not only the physical (and virtual) endurance of the site but also of its management and research models. On the other hand, precise contexts greatly determine how these models play out in the long run. For instance, audience development, community building, communication initiatives, awareness raising, sponsor procurement or lobbying play important roles in assuring overall long term sustainability of management and research models put into practice at different properties. Tourism demand must also be equated: if revenues from visitors are important for the financial stability of any given managing institution, over visitation to the sites can endanger the integrity and authenticity of heritage values, resulting in a negative impact to future sustainability of sites.
This session aims to bring together diverse contributions that can enhance our current understanding of sustainability issues, establish strategic guidelines and foster concerted efforts towards developing new approaches suitable to deal with the challenges that the fast-paced changing societies and environments of the XXI century pose. Hence, managers, researchers or conservation specialists working at archaeological sites inscribed in the World Heritage List are cordially invited to contribute to the session.

T3.03 Sharing values – successes and dead ends of tourism developments

Dr. Katalin Wollák, Archaeolingua, Hungary
Dr. Erzsébet Jerem, Archaeolingua, Hungary
Dr. Matija Črešnar, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

AThe idea of this session is based on the common World Heritage nomination process, prepared by four countries, and resulted in the submission of the nomination dossier in January 2018, entitled “The Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Danube Limes”. One of the challenges was that nevertheless the four countries (Germany /Bavaria/-Austria-Slovakia-Hungary) selected the archaeological sites to be nominated based on agreed professional criteria, due to the different characteristics of the countries, thus there are significant differences between the tentative sites.
The World Heritage idea – the outstanding universal value – is based on three pillars: the world heritage criteria, the integrity and authenticity, and the proper protection and management. Since this nomination is intended to establish a new serial transnational property, uniform management principles are indispensable. In addition, the contradiction between the traditional defensive instruments of preservation and the proactive measures of the management, which often required development, had to be addressed. A further task was to balance between partially discovered and reburied or unexplored sites/landscape elements, and sites containing grass-tangled ruins, moreover sites with reconstructed elements or visitor centres and to stitch these different locations to a visitor route so that the values of nominated 98 sites in the territory of 4 countries should be properly represented and enhanced.
In order to realise these goals several initiatives have been introduced like simplified management plan, signage and information board system, usage of digital technologies, stakeholder analysis, elaboration of maintenance and development programs, etc. The interests of the owners, maintainers, the tourism experts and the resource provider, significantly influenced the professional principles furthermore by the magnitude of the archaeological interventions necessary for the development. Negotiations had a positive and negative impact on the original ideas at many locations, and the archaeological aspects had to be adjusted to achieve the expected common result.
We encountered similar problems and challenges in the Iron Age Danube project as well, one of the objectives of which is the better promotion of the monumental Iron Age landscapes and the archaeological elements in the landscape, achieving higher awareness and supporting the exploitation of touristic potential. Based on the experience of the two projects the session would welcome presentations, which are tackling following questions:
• interpretation strategy for protected sites and landscapes
• additional role new digital technologies (web, apps, 3D models)
• possible cooperation between local heritage managers and other (touristic) actors
• facing different values, successful negotiating technics
• how to engage effective support, role of civil society /local environment

T3.04 Archaeological Parks in Protected Areas and National Parks: Perspectives and their Significance for Development of Cultural Tourism

Mr. Joško Zaninović, Drniš Municipal Museum / Krka National Park

This session explores the role, character and development of archaeological parks in protected areas such as national parks. We invite contributions from both archaeologists and park managers communicating good practices and pitfalls of this relationship.
Organized by the Krka National Park as an introductory session to the working excursion to the Park on the 10th May.

T3.05 Volunteers, welcome! Embracing volunteer engagement at world heritage sites

Mr. Vinko Tarbušković, Public Institution for the Management of the Stari Grad Plain World Heritage Site, Stari Grad, Croatia

Protected landscapes, archaeological sites and cultural entities, especially those that are branded as world heritage sites, should not be presented solely as destinations for the mass tourism which users perceive exclusively on the level of acquiring information. Such trends have changed considerably in the last thirty years, primarily through the active involvement of tourists/ users with the cultural significance of a site.
Volunteering is an important segment in the management of world heritage sites, which transforms tourists/ users into active participants and consumers of a site. Ways of volunteering largely depend on the geographic-spatial characteristics of a particular site, the management structure, to the particular need for such an engagement. Likewise, the volunteer structure varies from the professional-institutional to the amateur-personal level.
Archaeological monuments that are part of the world heritage, especially cultural landscapes, allow a wide range of user’s involvement in the various segments of the site management. Whether the site is the major tourist attraction or is a part of an existing tourist offer, there is an unquenchable possibility of active participation of users which does not acquire additional funding, in accordance with the particular needs of a location.
And this paradox, which is centered on the needs of the management, instead of the users, can lead to a series of long-term planning options in managing the site, and consequently put the users back in focus.
Through this panel, we will try to review possibilities, modalities, established and potential practices of volunteer engagement at the world heritage sites, whether it involves the engagement of tourists-amateurs, professional-partner institutions or existing volunteer networks. Likewise, we will place special emphasis on the consequences of such cooperation on the local tourist offer as well as on the benefits it creates for the sites itself.

T3.06 Crossing Borders: Challenges of transnational Management of World Heritage in relation to Tourism

Dr. Cynthia Dunning, ArchaeoConcept

The Prehistoric Pile-Dwellings around the Alps, the Stecci Medieval Tombstone Graveyards, or the Stone Circles of Senegambia, just to name some of the archaeological transboundary UNESCO World Heritage Serial Properties, are extremely challenging when it comes to site management. Not only do the managers have to cope with the matters of the sites themselves, they also have to consider different national management methods, ways of thinking and developing of the manifold archaeological sites forming a whole between different countries. If you consider tourism, a number of questions appear which necessitate answers, or at least reflexions allowing setting a path for future actions. Different languages, political frontiers, diverse management systems seem to be the most evident obstacles, but the interest for the sites themselves offer possibilities to bypass them. Tourisim may be the instrument to do so.
The papers of this session will bring up the challenges of this particular type of sites and offer examples of good practice.

T3.07 Public Interest Role in the Landscape Heritage Management

MA Anja Bertol Stipetić, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia
MA Regina Natalie Klöckl, University of Graz, Institute of Archaeology
PhD Magdolna Vicze, Matrica Museum, Szazhalombatta, Hungary

European Landscape Convention states that landscape has an important public interest role and constitutes a resource favourable to economic activity whose protection, management and planning can contribute to job creation and to the well-being of the local community. Based on that, the theme of this workshop will be discussing landscape management through dealing with one of the crucial problems that are its long-term sustainability and incorporation into the public/communal tissue. Beside that, local population’s insufficient knowledge about the importance of cultural heritage as the cause of its poor/inadequate use will be discussed. Furthermore, landscape heritage sites, because of their specific features/characteristics, require a special action strategy to promote/in order to achieve these goals by reaching local government, tourist boards and educational institutions that will further provide information or work on/invent frameworks for residents, local entrepreneurs and other stakeholders, so this will be another point of discussion. The main objective of this workshop is a better understanding of how to plan and lay down the foundation toward a more sustainable management of cultural landscapes. Other objective is how to receive tools to assist in completing the goals. The last objective is to talk with other experts about the challenges or road blocks that they have encountered.

Theme 4 – Cultural Routes
T4.01 llyria Route: how history and archeology can unite people and countries

Mr. Damir Murkovic, Croatian Community of Trieste
Dr. Maša Sakara Sučević, Koper Regional Museum, Slovenia
Ms. Morana Vuković, Archaeological Museum in Zadar

A line, an imaginary journey, for now, that ideally connects countries and people from Trieste to Macedonia across Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia: this is the deepest meaning of the “Illyria Route”, an ongoing project for the creation of a European Cultural Route that holds the themes of the history of pre-Roman peoples in a territory that for a long time has been vaguely called \”Illyria\”, and that can lead to a sustainable tourism development.
Born from a workshop in 2017 organized in Trieste by the Croatian Community and ACCOA entitled \”Illyria-Illyricum: mythical space, historic space. Possible future European Cultural Route from the Karst to Dalmatia\”, the project has immediately received favorable opinions from a number of partners in Italy, Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, ranging from cultural institutions to local governments to civil society—all of them sharing the common understanding of how ancient history can become a denominator for a tourism development of the area different from the mass summer tourism.
Creating an ad hoc session on the theme \”Illyria Route\” might be the best way to combine in a unique discussion the themes of the Conference such as the smart use of archaeology and archaeological heritage to create a conscious tourism able to bring economic and social development in some areas that today suffer of a deep competitive disadvantage.

T4.02 European Cultural Routes program of the Council of Europe - example: the Venetian Cultural Route

Mr Dragos Cosmescu, CISET

The Cultural Routes Program was launched by the Council of Europe with the objective to demonstrate how the cultural heritage of European countries has evolved across borders. The title “European Cultural Route” is awarded by the Council of Europe to cultural routes recognized as significant throughout Europe.
The European Cultural Route can be constructed as a platform for projects in Heritage Research, Preservation and Promotion, with extensive cross-regional cooperation networks of partners.
The members of the route have the opportunity to develop a European interregional cooperation program focused on Heritage Preservation and valorization, which helps implement a large variety of cross-border projects. The members develop partnerships, and gain international recognizability in the field of Heritage, culture and research.
The EU has setup at Lisbon (2009) the goal to make Europe the No.1 Cultural Tourism destination in the world – and the Cultural Routes program is acknowledged as part this strategy. There are EU funding available for cultural tourism projects in the form of structural funds, transnational programs, or external cooperation programs.
The European Cultural Routes are one of the newest and more innovative cultural tourism products that can be very beneficial for all the Balkan countries and the promotion and preservation of their heritage.
An example for the importance and potential of the European Cultural Route is the project by CISET (Venice) to setup the Venetian Cultural Route of the Council of Europe. In the targeted area, there is a strong research and cultural potential, exemplified by the extensive numbers of universities and UNESCO sites, and there is also a strong tourism potential, demonstrated by the tourism economics of the regions in the area targeted.
We will present the potential of European Cultural Routes, with the application of our Venetian Cultural Route to Croatia and neighboring countries.

T4.03 Mediterranean Cultural Routes

Ms. Sofia Fonseca Teiduma, Consultancy on Heritage and Culture, Portugal
Ms. Alexandra Rodrigues, Algarve University, Portugal
Mr. Juan Manuel Cid Legado Andalusí, Spain
Dr. Rachid Chamoun, LAU Louis Cardahi Foundation, Lebanon

As proposed by UNESCO and the Council of Europe, Heritage Routes have shown to be an interesting concept by offering the possibility of dialogue across borders and regions integrating material, cultural and spiritual elements. The Routes are created based on population movement, encounters and interchange and cultural interactions, in space and time. They also provide the possibility of decentralization of tourism from the crowded touristic cities or monuments, inviting the tourist to visit other regions making the experience more sustainable and rewarding to the visitor and the local populations.
In our session, we will focus on the Mediterranean routes, especially the ones related with Al-Andalus routes and the Sites of Globalization route. Al-Andalus corresponds geographically and culturally to the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish control between 711 and 1492, where the coexistence and dialogue between Islamic, Christian and Jewish cultures and religions were effective during this period. Due to the extension of the routes created by the Umayyad dynasty, that included the Arab world and the Maghreb, not only the Iberian Peninsula was enriched by this legacy but the entire Mediterranean region. The cultural routes of Al-Andalus are a UNESCO’S Routes of Dialogue and a Council of Europe Cultural Route. The Sites of Globalization, part of the UNESCO tentative list, is a cultural route linking the Algarve, including the cities of Sagres, Lagos, Aljezur, Monchique and Silves, the Atlantic islands of Azores, Madeira, Cape Verd, and Mauritania. The route is related to the Portuguese expansion of the XV century and the new commercial and cultural connections created during that period.
In our session, we would like to discuss these Mediterranean Cultural Routes as a way of connecting cultures, countries and regions and we invite the participants to reflect upon the following questions: Which role Cultural Routes play as a tool to enhance dialogue between cultures? How can we promote and develop strategies to promote the Cultural Routes already created and identify new ones? What are the challenges of managing transnational heritage? How can we implicate and benefit more the communities along the route?

T4.04 International Cultural Routes in Archaeology. Case Study: Adriatic Greeks

Mrs. Zrinka Ettinger Starčić, Lošinj Museum

Setting cultural routes which include sites in several countries provides many challenges as well as opportunities. Archaeological routes are particular complicated for several reasons. Different historical and interpretative tradition in individual countries may define apparently same cultural content or timeframe of the route in a different way. Different levels of development of tourist infrastructure as well as different legal framework regarding accessibility and treatment (presentation and interpretation) of sites in each of the countries could be obstacle in making route homogenous in terms of providing tourist services. On the other hand, such routes provide sense of deeper cultural connection that surpassed current borders and provide background for further development of diverse forms of international co-operation.
This workshop aims to provide possible solutions to existing problems and give insight in possibilities that such routes might develop in the future. We will use case study of cultural connections of Greek presence and influences in wider area of the Adriatic to provide examples of good past activities, information on ongoing projects, insight in individual sites and attractions, and different experiences and/or ideas of creation and management of tourist services along suggested route.

T4.05 The Neandertal Trail: a nascent cultural route

Dr. Ivor Janković, Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb
Mr. Sanjin Mihelić, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia
Prof. Ivor Karavanić, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Thirty millennia of oblivion separates us from the moment when modern man last gazed into the living face of a Neandertal, and the long lost knowledge that this extinct relative of ours had ever existed was rediscovered mere century and a half ago. While our ancestors are more or less directly responsible for the Neandertals’ demise from history, the task to save them from being forgotten lies with contemporary generations. The leading role in unveiling the Neandertal’s secrets is reserved for archaeologists, anthropologists and other scholars but, like in many similar cases, the results of their research are meant to be used as the foundation for presenting and introducing Neandertal man and his material and spiritual culture to a much wider public.
This is the idea behind the project entitled The Neandertal Trail, an archaeological route aimed at unifying and evaluating in terms of cultural tourism the archaeological heritage pertaining to Neandertal man. The starting point of the session is the convenors’ presentation of their experience with various aspects of valorization of Neandertal heritage sites in Croatia on the one hand, and relationships and issues with different stakeholders on the other.
The session aims at bringing together professionals and practitioners with experience and interest in valorizing Neandertal heritage from Europe and beyond—both from academia and from tourism sector, as well as from other stakeholder groups—with a view to establish a forum for discussing the potential creation of a transnational cultural route dedicated to the Neandertals.

T4.06 Roads that mean Empire: a new life of the Roman imperial road network

Mr. Lino Ursić, Split and Dalmatia County Tourist Board

The southern, non-coastal part of Dalmatia is a land known for the preservation of old, authentic customs as well as for its landscape dominated by karst topography, canyons and one of the country’s National Parks. This ‘’land behind the hills’’ as locals call Dalmatian Zagora, is a part of Croatia the world has only recently begun to discover.
But the Dalmatian Hinterland boasts a rich cultural heritage as reflected in the archeological remains scattered throughout the area. In Dalmatian Zagora the deepest historical marks can be traced to the Roman times. With the construction of modern road infrastructure came the time to reveal the hidden jewels: the Roman road networks, the starting point of which was in Salona. Those remains of roads used by Roman legions and local population centuries ago are still here, waiting to take visitors on a journey in time.
Following the surviving remains of Roman roadways guests looking for a deeper insight into the area’s eventful history can explore the ruins of early Christian necropolises, sacral objects, numerous fortifications and Roman military camps. The Roman road network of Dalmatian Hinterland unfolds the secrets of an Empire classified as the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization.
In their individual sessions, we kindly encourage all colleagues to follow the guidelines and example of the section dealing with roads that mean Empire, a session that will be presented shortly by myself.
Finally as the project manager of the particular session I would like to warmly invite all colleagues dealing with similar or related topics from their territories to conduct their individual presentations. Through your participation, you can help developing issues to be explored further by the projects, while your presentations will hopefully unfold the opportunities of a potential bilateral cooperation. An important aim of this conference is to foster debate, share experiences and identify the prospects of the future development of archeological and heritage oriented tourism all over Europe.

T4.07 Approaches and Challenges in Development and Sustainable Management of Cultural Routes

Mrs. Marta Rakvin, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb
Mrs. Vlasta Klarić, Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Croatia
Mrs. Ksenija Keča International University Libertas, Croatia
Mr. Marko Trupković, Žumberak-Samoborsko gorje Nature Park, Croatia

Among the many ways of cultural heritage presentations, cultural routes are one of the best forms in which the in situ cultural heritage sites can be introduced to the public.
A walk through the past, while immersed in the landscape where cultural and natural heritage are often integrated, allows the audience and cultural consumers to uniquely experience the subject presented.
On the other hand, in the processes of developing and managing the routes the specific set of issues arise. These range from issues concerning preservation and protection of the heritage presented, multidisciplinary research and cooperation, understanding of contemporary visitors and trends in travel and tourism, and issues concerning touristic exposure of the sites to the mundane, including the responsible management of the routes. Another important issue that should be addressed is their role in the local community, providing social sustainability and new visibility of neglected areas.
The objective of this workshop is to bring together those involved in the development of cultural routes and its management on all levels from experts to stakeholders. The aim is to discuss different approaches in management of cultural routes, but also to share common problems, challenges and examples of good practices through all of the stages from the idea to make a cultural route to its execution and management.