|| Money Makes the World Go Round - Archaeological Tourism, Alternative Funding and Sustainability of Projects in Archaeology
Mr. Filip Franković,University of Heidelberg, Germany
Mr. Ozren Domiter, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia
Funding problems are a challenge for most archaeological projects, since they are still predominantly funded by public resources and regarded more as a charity donation than as an investment. This a result of the fact that archaeological projects are rarely prioritized and often regarded as unsustainable. As a result, archaeologists are seeking alternative funding models which would offer more lucrative funding opportunities. However, the opening up of the discipline towards new resources is a two-way street, which also requires archaeological projects to consider new markets and target groups. While such a change may lead to the development of sustainability, it also necessitates a step away from the traditional operating model and towards a more marketable and consumer-oriented experience. Therefore, archaeological tourism might be a stepping stone towards sustainability of archaeological projects.
The turn towards sustainability and the subsequent commercialization of archaeology often invokes criticism. If archaeology is understood as a discipline in the service of society, should it continue to evade commodification as much as possible? In what ways can archaeology open up to the general public as a consumer experience and at what charge, if any? How does the exclusivity of the discipline contribute to its (un)sustainability? Can archaeological tourism be used for the development of sustainable models? The relationship between archaeological tourism and archaeological projects is yet to be determined in order to balance financial needs and avoid excessive commercialization.
To address this challenge, we would like to open the discussion on four topics applicable to various activities in archaeology:
1) Role of archaeological tourism in the development of sustainable archaeological projects
2) Archaeological tourism as an alternative funding model: risks and benefits
3) Benefits of archaeological tourism for local stakeholders
4) Commodification of archaeology: advantages and disadvantages
|| Journey to the Beginnings: Developing Sustainable Arts-Based Heritage Tourism
Prof. Joanna Sofaer, University of Southampton, UK
Barna Petrányi, Pro Progressione, Hungary+
This session addresses the challenges and benefits of developing novel, sustainable, cross-sectoral interventions designed to boost heritage tourism by reaching new audiences through the case study of the EU-funded Culture Europe Project \’Journey to the Beginnings\’.
Journey to the Beginnings is a collaborative project involving prehistoric cultural heritage sites, museums, contemporary arts and new technologies to promote and enhance public appreciation of prehistoric cultural heritage along the River Danube. The project uses cultural heritage as a source of inspiration for contemporary arts and new technologies to develop a new interpretive infrastructure for four key archaeological sites, their associated museums and archaeological parks: the Bronze Age tell at Százhalombatta and the Matrica Museum, Hungary; the Eneolithic site of Vučedol and the Vučedol Culture Museum, Croatia; the Mesolithic site of Lepenski Vir and Lepenski Vir Museum, Serbia; Bronze Age sites at Gârla Mare and Iron Gates Regional Museum, Romania. Cross-sectoral collaboration between archaeologists, museum professionals, cultural heritage managers, tourist professionals, IT experts and contemporary artists (a theatre director, novelist, composer and set designer) is resulting in live game-based performances and an augmented and mixed reality application. The latter aims at using technology to provide a sustainable interpretive infrastructure that will develop the visitor experience. Research on the relationship between archaeology and arts practice is carried out throughout the project process in order to develop best practice in this area and explore its potential for tourist engagement with heritage.
Contributions to the session come from a range of project stakeholders, thereby providing a range of complementary perspectives on sustainable arts-based heritage tourism.
|| Heritage Impact Assessment and the Cultural Property Management Planning
Dr. Dražen Arbutina, ICOMOS Croatia; Politechnic of Zagreb, Croatia
Heritage has the essential function only incorporated into our reality. For heritage to be incorporated it is necessary to know it. To know the heritage and to understand its values, for many, there is necessity for physical interaction, in providing direct contact and visit. The principles of the integrating heritage into everyday life today include high frequency and high intensity tourism and visits. Visits are than made often to extremely limited and sensitive locations, and they pose extremely challenging process to manage and problems to mitigate. The need for every human to experience heritage in person through physical experience is therefore often contributing to its devastation. It is more so in today chaotic and massive tourism, due to the enormous number of such visitors and their ability to travel around the world.
As an attempt to respond to positive intentions and extremely negative potential effects, the institutions of the Heritage Impact Assessment, and the planning and management of the heritage sites are developed. Those institutions, as potentially affirmative, are world wide presented and in principle defined, but in practical and pragmatic way they have to be developed in a way to be much more profound and viable. It is necessary to develop applicability and inclusiveness of their methods and it is necessary to evolve much needed effectiveness in implementation of their findings.
In the light of the economic pressures and with the maximum profanation of tourism and heritage visits, challenges arise that involve analyzing and assessing potential negative effects on the cultural property, as well as ways to prevent, avoid, correct or mitigate the negative consequences of such an uncontrolled tourism turmoil. It is than the issue of planning the management of cultural properties and sites in a such way that sustainability is fully embedded within. It has to be done enabling the possibility of personal interaction with the heritage, but not in a manner that will have the possibility and ability to destroy its character and integrity, and in many cases its physical existence.
It is intent in this proposal to open a discussion around the models and methods of assessing the impact on the heritage of various tourist activities. It is intent to define the ways for heritage management and management planning in a way that would demonstrate sustainability in its entirety, to provide the heritage with mechanisms to survive the hectic and now almost manic essence of modern tourism.
|| Dive into the Past: Underwater Archaeology and Sustainable Tourism
Dr. Irena Radić Rossi, University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia
Dr. Barbara Davidde, Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro (ISCR), Rome, Italy
Underwater cultural heritage is an appealing cultural attraction which can substantially enrich the cultural tourism offer. Through various ways of presentation, with the help of new technologies, it becomes accessible to everybody, either in situ or in the museum collections and other public spaces.
The underwater archaeological sites reflect a long history of human interconnections. Through creation of networks of such sites, we can invite people to follow the traces of our ancestors and feel the excitement of new discoveries. The emerging figure of citizen scientist, which actively participates in various stages of scientific work, is a promising way of involvement of broad community in the process of research, protection, preservation and presentation of delicate underwater environments.
The session explores current trends in creation of attractive touristic destinations based on underwater cultural heritage, with special emphasis on new technologies which highly contribute to its attractiveness and accessibility. It also explores the potential threats to the sustainability of such efforts and discusses the possible solutions to the emerging problems.
|| Archaeologist LIVE - Towards Active Consumption of Archaeological Heritage
Mr. Ozren DomiterArchaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia
Mr. Filip Franković University of Heidelberg, Germany
The basic idea of the session shares the attitude that traditional visit of archaeological site is overran by the time. The modern visitor strives for authentic experience and direct interaction with an archaeological professional in action.
The session is formed to share and discuss various experiences, modalities, practice, perspectives and theoretical contemplations of archaeological heritage communication in vivo, i.e. through the live interaction between professional archaeologist and non-archaeologist individual group of users. Whether it is about museum visits, guided tours on sites or presentation of monuments, archaeological excavations/survey, office work in an institution, preservation or any other form of archaeological work, such a personal, direct interaction should result in the unique experience of active personal involvement necessarily gained in the authentic archaeological/institutional environment under non-simulated conditions.
As the archaeological science is in the service of society in the first, we believe that forms of their communication, even through the live interaction with a professional archaeologist in action, should remain free-of-charge and deprived of any commodification even when it is part of the touristic offer. Of course, different practices and attitudes toward the commercialization of archaeology and archaeological goods are also encouraged, as well as the perspectives of (non)sustainability in such a way of live presentation.
The mission of the session is to share and question;
– different experiences and ideas of such an interaction,
– modalities and circumstances under which it takes place
– direct or subsequent material and non-material benefits for an organising institution, the professional involved, a user himself and the local community
– commercial and non-commercial aspects on the topic toward sustainability
|| Watch your step! - Sustainable management of cave sites as tourist attractions
Prof. Jim Ahern, University of Wyoming, USA
Dr. Ivor Janković, Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb
Caves have been a part of human experience ever since our genus arose. Caves served many roles in the past. They have been homes, shelters, places of death, ritual and worship. Likewise, caves are still very much an important part of our lives. For scientists of different trades, caves provide a valuable source for research.
Additionally, caves are important for other reasons. Local communities still use caves as a part of their subsistence patterns and lifestyle (e.g. as enclosures for their livestock). New trends in medicine and therapy have also embraced caves (speleotherapy). In addition, the exploration of caves is an ever growing trend. While this is welcome for economic reasons and certainly an important and integral part that can follow scientific research and excavations, it has its own dangers. Thus, it is crucial to come to a sustainable solution and guidelines for best practices that will allow both scientific research and public visitation to the sites.
This session is aimed at bringing together various experiences and addressing the questions pertaining to interpretation and presentation of archaeological cave sites, including visitor management, carrying capacity; marketing and management; their role as research sites, points of interest for community archaeology, and cultural attractions in the management of tourist destinations.
|| Slow and Sustainable: Citta Slow
Mr. Mehmetcan Soyluoglu, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus
In a globalized world, endangered level of the world’s cultural heritage is increasingly growing in these days. Undoubtedly, augmentation in the human population and uncontrolled urban expansion are some of the threatening factors that put cultural heritage in risk. The gap between human and its cultural heritage is increasing and the balance between urban development and cultural heritage in the cities is disrupted. On the other hand, a social movement which is called Citta Slow (Slow City) has a unique way to keep human interaction with cultural heritage in a less harmful manner, even protecting and enhancing the sustainability of the heritage in various circumstances. While the criteria that are required by the Citta Slow movement bring sustainability to the cultural heritage protection for the entitled cities with the help of locals, also, these cities become attraction points for the tourists who are interested in alternative forms of tourism.
This session will examine the Citta Slow movement, its criteria for the title, and their effects on cultural heritage protection, based on the slow cities. Currently, there are more than 250 cities entitled as Citta Slow all around the world and each of them follows different policies to promote and support their titles, which will also be discussed in this session. Moreover, observations on tourism and cultural heritage interaction in slow cities and what kind of scientific approaches can be applied to those cities and which benefits can be gained will also find a place in this session. We invite presentations that are interested in Citta Slow experience and its connection with cultural heritage and tourism from different aspects and case studies.
|| Interpretation and presentation of archaeological sites within the framework of the legislation
Dora Kušan Špalj, Archaeological museum in Zagreb
This theme will explore in what form the interpretation and presentation of archaeological sites are represented in the laws and legislation in different countries (within the framework of tourism and the protection of cultural heritage). It would be interesting to compare the practice of institutional manegment (type of organisation, owner of the organisation, type of management etc.) of presented archaeological sites and how their establishment is regulated.
Is there any definition of the terms connected with presentation of the sites (archaeological park, archaeological open air museum, archeological zone, etc) in legislation of different countries?
The topic will be contribution in collecting data based on information and experience of different countries. The data obtained may be useful in the countries that do not have fully elaborated legislation and regulations relating to presentation and interpretation of archaeological sites, but also assistance to institutions that are in the process of establishing new archaeological parks (how to find the most suitable organisational form).
The plan is to prepare questionnaires that the participants of the conference would fill in and then the topic could be discussed on a \”round table\”. The idea is to publish collected information and results in order to be useful for further development of this theme in various countries.
|| Revitalization of the Cultural Heritage Sites: Heritage as the Initiator and not a Restraint for Sustainable Development
Dr. Jacqueline Balen, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb
Ms. Marta Rakvin, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb
Ms. Ivana Pancirov, APE d.o.o.
Ms. Sandra Jakopec, APE d.o.o.
Cultural heritage is often perceived as passive and static, not allowing many possibilities for innovation and implementation of new creative ideas or technologies that would add new values and provide a basis for sustainable development of the community it is immersed in.
As bearers of community’s identity and tangible connectors to its past and ancestors, archaeological and other culture heritage sites possess an unparalleled trait that can used by a very divergent pool of stakeholders. In this way, it can be adapted to current needs and interests, reinvented and ultimately monetized.
Furthermore, because every site is different it constitutes a basis for development of activities that can be specifically tailored for a particular region taking into account its location, natural and cultural environment, gastronomical and oenological offer…etc.
Educational and cultural roles of heritage sites, as well as the protection system, cannot be seen as a restraint for their sustainable development, but rather as measures of conservation and means for raising awareness for its successful future use.
In recognizing the value of every cultural heritage site and positioning it on the market of \”special interests\” while considering the principles of sustainable development, it would be possible to successfully commercialize it without fear of too much exploitation. In addition, polity and strategy makers should always incorporate members of the local community stakeholders into their revitalization plans.
|| Integrated management of archaeological sites: a short review of European practices
Prof. Hrvoje Potrebica, University of Zagreb
Dr. Vincent Guichard,Bibracte EPCC, France
The concept of integrated management emerged at the same time as the idea of sustainable development, with the two concepts being considered mutually dependent. For obvious reasons, they have both been applied predominantly to environmental issues, with a symbolic milestone being reached at the 1992 Rio Summit. Since this time, these concepts have increasingly informed environmental policy and law. Applying these ideas to cultural heritage would seem to be both obvious and necessary. Explicit mention of integrated management in normative documents relating to cultural heritage remains extremely rare, however.
On a more practical level, integrated management is rarely mentioned when management plans for heritage sites are being drawn up. The fact that the concept is not specifically referred to does not, however, mean that these policies do not advocate integrated management in practice; it is, for example, the underlying principle behind the French Grands Sites policy. From a practical and operational point of view this allows us to define as integrated management a formalised and planned management style which has as its primary objective the long-term preservation of a site’s authenticity, based in particular on the knowledge and on the involvement of local communities on all levels.
The workshop we are proposing wishes to explore the modalities of integrated management of archaeological sites, by comparing practical experiences and projects relating to half a dozen sites, which will be presented in the form of briefings lasting no more than 20 minutes in order to leave a large part for discussion. We will also explore the possibilities of sharing experiences at European level.
Proposals for intervention from archaeologists involved in site management or site managers are equally welcome.
|| Borders and boundaries of critical heritage studies in the Mediterranean area: tourism and beyond
Dr Darko Babić, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Dr Clara Masriera Esquerra, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Prof Alexandra Bounia, University College London – Qatar
The MED (Mediterranean) Chapter of the ACHS (Association of Critical Heritage Studies) is a cross-national, regional network of scholars, researchers and practitioners working in the broad and interdisciplinary field of heritage studies who are based in the Mediterranean area (countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea) or have an interest in the Mediterranean heritage. It is a subset of the international ACHS whose \’primary aim is to promote heritage as an area of critical enquiry\’.
The MED Chapter, established in 2018, promotes Mediterranean heritage as an area of critical enquiry and supports dialogue, networking, exchange of and dissemination of information between researchers, practitioners and activists from different fields and disciplinary backgrounds interested in the Mediterranean heritage.
Re: the conference “Sense and Sustainability” = International Conference on Archaeology and Tourism (6-10 May 2019, Zagreb) we are proposing a session which will gather heritage experts discussing what is critical heritage approach as far as the Mediterranean area is concerned. Where are challenges, benefits, or possible downfalls of this (global) approach. An extra interest will be put on influence of tourism on heritage issues in the Mediterranean area (positive or negative, both are welcomed).
|| Education and heritage: challenges and issues in the age of historicity crisis|
Asst. prof. Igor Kulenović,PhD, University of Zadar, Department of Tourism and Communication Studies
Sanja Horvatinčić, PhD, Institute of Art History, Zagreb
The societies of late capitalism were affected by a profound change over the past few decades. Historicity as a property of whole communities loses its appeal and it is being substituted by more personalised notions of heritage and memory. Hence, the conditions of production of archaeology as a relevant discipline in society have changed significantly. The discipline is no longer expected simply to produce knowledge about the past but also to ‘’justify’’ its existence in market conditions. Tourism is a constantly growing enterprise and in some countries it is a crucial source of income. The circumstances for the discipline have changed inasmuch as archaeology is now expected to take an active role in production of knowledge and sites suited for the needs of cultural tourists.
This session aims to explore various problems and issues of what does it mean to teach heritage, to practice heritage, to interpret and manage heritage in a world that seems to have utterly compressed space and time. This particularly pertains to concepts, paradigms, interpretative tools, themes etc. deployed to fully embrace this new set of circumstances. The range of fields and areas of expertise affected by these changes is truly enormous. They include core disciplines such as archaeology, anthropology, history, art history etc. but also a range of stakeholders in the realm of practice such as tourism and heritage studies (including but not reduced to tourist guides, tourist agencies, heritage managers, heritage officials etc.).
We invite scholars and practitioners from a broad range of fields to present their views on what it means to create and disseminate knowledge on heritage today and what are the challenges posed by the brave new world of cultural production in late capitalism.
|| Is Tourism Destroying World Heritage? (ICAHM sponsored session)
Dr. William P. Megarry, ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management
World heritage sites are popular destinations for tourists, yet there is often a conflict between preserving these outstanding places and enabling people to access and experience them. This dichotomy lies at the heart world heritage management. The ICOMOS Mexico Charter on Managing Tourism at Places of Historical Interest states that, ‘Reasonable and well managed physical, intellection and/ or emotive access to heritage and cultural development is both a right and a privilege’ [emphasis added]. But this right comes at a cost. Many iconic World Heritage Sites are over-crowded and large numbers of visitors are leading to unsustainable tourism development. Global tourism is also a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and World Heritage Sites play a significant role in this industry. Rising sea levels, increased storminess, desertification and increased rainfall are already impacting many World Heritage Sites, and the problem is only going to get worse.
This session will explore the intersection between tourism and sustainability – both of individual sites and of World Heritage in general. It welcomes papers exploring issues relating to World Heritage Sites including, but not limited to, carrying capacities, visitor management, community engagement in tourism, tourism and sustainability, climate change and tourism and slow-tourism.
This session is sponsored by ICAHM